Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes severe motor dysfunction and persistent central neuropathic pain (Nep), which has not yet been effectively cured. Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is typically produced by cancer cells and contributes to the immune-suppressive in tumor microenvironment. However, the role of PD-L1 in regulating inflammatory response and Nep after SCI remains unclear. A growing amount of researches have begun to investigate the effect of PD-L1 on macrophages and microglia in recent years. Considering the pivotal role of macrophages/microglia in the inflammatory response after SCI, we proposed the hypothesis that PD-L1 improved the recovery of locomotor and sensory functions after SCI through regulating macrophages and microglia.