Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a routine treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). DBS surgery is commonly performed under local anesthesia (LA) to obtain reliable microelectrode recordings. However, procedural sedation and/or analgesia (PSA) is often desirable to improve patient comfort. The impact of PSA in addition to LA on outcome is largely unknown. Therefore, we performed an observational study to assess the effect of PSA compared to LA alone during STN DBS surgery on outcome in PD patients.