Microvascular dysfunction is responsible for chest pain in various kinds of patients, including those with obstructive coronary artery disease and persistent symptoms despite revascularization, or those with myocardial disease without coronary stenosis. Its diagnosis can be performed with an advanced imaging technique such as positron emission tomography, which represents the gold standard for diagnosing microvascular abnormalities. In recent years, cardiovascular magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography have demonstrated to be emerging modalities for microcirculation assessment. The identification of microvascular disease represents a fundamental step in the characterization of patients with chest pain and no epicardial coronary disease: its identification is important to manage medical strategies and improve prognosis. The present overview summarizes the main techniques and current evidence of these advanced imaging strategies in assessing microvascular dysfunction and, if present, their relationship with invasive evaluation.