Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major dose-limiting side effect that occurs in up to 63% of patients and has no known effective treatment. A majority of studies do not effectively assess sex differences in the onset and persistence of CIPN. Here we investigated the onset of CIPN, a point of therapeutic intervention where we may limit, or even prevent the development of CIPN. We hypothesized that cap-dependent translation mechanisms are important in early CIPN development and the bi-directional crosstalk between immune cells and nociceptors plays a complementary role to CIPN establishment and sex differences observed. In this study, we used wild type and eIF4E-mutant mice of both sexes to investigate the role of cap-dependent translation and the contribution of immune cells and nociceptors in the periphery and glia in the spinal cord during paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. We found that systemically administered paclitaxel induces pain-like behaviors in both sexes, increases helper T-lymphocytes, downregulates cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and increases mitochondrial dysfunction in dorsal root ganglia neurons; all of which is eIF4E-dependent in both sexes. We identified a robust paclitaxel-induced, eIF4E-dependent increase in spinal astrocyte immunoreactivity in males, but not females. Taken together, our data reveals that cap-dependent translation may be a key pathway that presents relevant therapeutic targets during the early phase of CIPN. By targeting the eIF4E complex, we may reduce or reverse the negative effects associated with chemotherapeutic treatments.