Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication of diabetes. Small and large peripheral nerve fibers can be involved in DPN. Large nerve fiber damage causes paresthesia, sensory loss, and muscle weakness, and small nerve fiber damage is associated with pain, anesthesia, foot ulcer, and autonomic symptoms. Treatments for DPN and painful DPN (pDPN) pose considerable challenges due to the lack of effective therapies. To meet these challenges, there is a major need to develop biomarkers that can reliably diagnose and monitor progression of nerve damage and, for pDPN, facilitate personalized treatment based on underlying pain mechanisms.