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Papers of the Week

Papers: 20 Mar 2021 - 26 Mar 2021

Animal Studies, Pharmacology/Drug Development

2021 Mar 16

ACS Omega



Adrenic Acid-Derived Epoxy Fatty Acids Are Naturally Occurring Lipids and Their Methyl Ester Prodrug Reduces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Inflammatory Pain.



Adrenic acid (AdA, 22:4) is an ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), derived from arachidonic acid. Like other PUFAs, it is metabolized by cytochrome P450s to a group of epoxy fatty acids (EpFAs), epoxydocosatrienoic acids (EDTs). EpFAs are lipid mediators with various beneficial bioactivities, including exertion of analgesia and reduction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, that are degraded to dihydroxy fatty acids by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). However, the biological characteristics and activities of EDTs are relatively unexplored, and, alongside dihydroxydocosatrienoic acids (DHDTs), they had not been detected . Herein, EDT and DHDT regioisomers were synthesized, purified, and used as standards for analysis with a selective and quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method. Biological verification in AdA-rich tissues suggests that basal metabolite levels are highest in the liver, with 16,17-EDT concentrations consistently being the greatest across the analyzed tissues. Enzyme hydrolysis assessment revealed that EDTs are sEH substrates, with greatest relative rate preference for the 13,14-EDT regioisomer. Pretreatment with an EDT methyl ester regioisomer mixture significantly reduced the onset of tunicamycin-stimulated ER stress in human embryonic kidney cells. Finally, administration of the regioisomeric mixture effectively alleviated carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain in rats. This study indicates that EDTs and DHDTs are naturally occurring lipids, and EDTs could be another therapeutically relevant group of EpFAs.