Serotonin (5-HT) receptors are found throughout central and peripheral nervous systems, mainly in brain regions involved in the neurobiology of anxiety and depression. 5-HT receptors are currently promising targets for discovering new drugs for treating disorders ranging from migraine to neuropsychiatric upsets, such as anxiety and depression. It is well described in the current literature that the brain expresses seven types of 5-HT receptors comprising eighteen distinct subtypes. In this article, we comprehensively reviewed 5-HT1-7 receptors. Of the eighteen 5-HT receptors known today, thirteen are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and represent targets for approximately 40% of drugs used in humans. Signaling pathways related to these receptors play a crucial role in neurodevelopment and can be modulated to develop effective therapies to treat anxiety and depression. This review presents the experimental evidence of the modulation of the "serotonergic receptosome" in the treatment of anxiety and depression, as well as demonstrating state-of-the-art research related to phytochemicals and these disorders. In addition, detailed aspects of the pharmacological mechanism of action of all currently known 5-HT receptor families were reviewed. From this review, it will be possible to direct the rational design of drugs towards new therapies that involve signaling via 5-HT receptors.