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Papers of the Week

2021 Mar 04

BMJ Case Rep



Tale of compounding oddities.


Agrawal U, Kanjiya K, Rodrigues C, Sunavala A
BMJ Case Rep. 2021 Mar 04; 14(3).
PMID: 33664024.


We present a case of a 59-year-old man, who on being evaluated for abdominal pain and headache, was found to have a pancreatic head mass and inflammatory hypophysitis. Xpert MTB/Rif of the pancreatic mass biopsy showed the presence of tuberculosis (TB) with a very low load, and rifampicin resistance was detected with absence of probes A and B. Pyrosequencing (a novel genotypic test for TB) of the Xpert MTB/Rif isolate detected a single, rare, high-confidence mutation (S512T) in the rpoB region (rifampicin resistance determining region in the MTB genome). The TB mycobacteria growth indicator tube (TBMGIT) phenotypic drug susceptibility test (DST), however, showed rifampicin susceptibility. Incidentally, he was unable to tolerate rifampicin and responded well to a non-rifampicin-based regimen. We discuss a possible hypothesis of the Xpert-DST discordance in accordance with a recent literature review on phenotypic DST methods. We also discuss the utility of pyrosequencing in clinical practice for the diagnosis of TB and its resistance patterns.