Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is a specific form of peripheral neuromodulation used in the treatment of chronic pain disorders. A particular field of application is in the therapy of treatment-refractory headaches, especially of chronic migraine. The precise mode of action is unknown. It is presumed that central and peripheral sensitization are reduced in patients with chronic headache. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ONS on pain-modulatory mechanisms in the trigeminocervical area in patients with chronic migraine.