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2021 Feb 05

Nutr Neurosci

5-HT3/7 and GABA receptors mediate inhibition of trigeminal nociception by dietary supplementation of grape seed extract.


Temporomandibular joint disorder is a prevalent orofacial pain condition involving sensitization and activation of trigeminal nociceptive neurons. Dietary supplementation with a proanthocyanin-enriched grape seed extract (GSE) was found to inhibit trigeminal nociception in a chronic TMD model. In this study, the cellular mechanisms by which GSE inhibits sustained trigeminal nociception in male and female Sprague Dawley rats were investigated. Some animals were supplemented with 0.5% GSE dissolved in their water one week prior to neck muscle inflammation induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the trapezius. To investigate the mechanism of GSE, some animals were injected intracisternally with antagonists of 5-HT3, 5-HT7, GABAA, or GABAB, receptor prior to jaw opening. In males and females, trapezius inflammation prior to jaw opening resulted in sustained mechanical hypersensitivity of trigeminal nociceptors that was significantly inhibited by GSE. Further, GSE beginning 14 days post jaw opening also inhibited trigeminal nociception. Intracisternal injection of antagonists of the 5-HT3/7 and GABAB, but not GABAA receptors reduced the anti-nocifensive effect of GSE in both sexes. Neuronal expression of GABAB protein and mRNA in the spinal cord and trigeminal ganglion were detected. The inhibitory effect of GSE is mediated via activation of 5-HT3/7 receptors and GABAB to enhance central descending inhibitory pain pathways and suppress ongoing trigeminal nociception. Further, our findings support the use of GSE as a dietary supplement in the management of pain associated with TMD and other orofacial pain conditions involving central sensitization and dysfunction of descending pain modulation.