Gut dysbacteriosis is closely related to various intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a biological therapy that entails transferring the gut microbiota from healthy individuals to patients in order to reconstruct the intestinal microflora in the latter. It has been proved to be an effective treatment for recurrent infection. Studies show that the gut microbiota plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neurological and psychiatric disorders through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Therefore, reconstruction of the healthy gut microbiota is a promising new strategy for treating cerebral diseases. We have reviewed the latest research on the role of gut microbiota in different nervous system diseases as well as FMT in the context of its application in neurological, psychiatric, and other nervous system-related diseases (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, hepatic encephalopathy, neuropathic pain, etc.).