Central amygdala (CeA) neurons expressing protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) or somatostatin (Som) differentially modulate diverse behaviors. The underlying features supporting cell-type-specific function in the CeA, however, remain unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology in acute mouse brain slices and biocytin-based neuronal reconstructions, we demonstrate that neuronal morphology and relative excitability are two distinguishing features between Som and PKCδ neurons in the laterocapsular subdivision of the CeA (CeLC). Som neurons, for example, are more excitable, compact, and with more complex dendritic arborizations than PKCδ neurons. Cell size, intrinsic membrane properties, and anatomic localization were further shown to correlate with cell-type-specific differences in excitability. Lastly, in the context of neuropathic pain, we show a shift in the excitability equilibrium between PKCδ and Som neurons, suggesting that imbalances in the relative output of these cells underlie maladaptive changes in behaviors. Together, our results identify fundamentally important distinguishing features of PKCδ and Som cells that support cell-type-specific function in the CeA.