Most patients with amputation (up to 80%) suffer from phantom limb pain postsurgery. These are often multimorbid patients who also have multiple risk factors for the development of chronic pain from a pain medicine perspective. Surgical removal of the body part and sectioning of peripheral nerves result in a lack of afferent feedback, followed by neuroplastic changes in the sensorimotor cortex. The experience of severe pain, peripheral, spinal, and cortical sensitization mechanisms, and changes in the body scheme contribute to chronic phantom limb pain. Psychosocial factors may also affect the course and the severity of the pain. Modern amputation medicine is an interdisciplinary responsibility.