Pharmacological agents directed to either opioid receptors or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) at peripheral tissues reduce behavioral signs of persistent pain. Both receptors are expressed in muscle tissue, but the contribution of PPARγ activation to muscle pain and its modulation by opioid receptors remains unknown. To address this question, we first tested whether the endogenous PPARγ ligand 15d-PGJ2 would decrease mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan administration into the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Next, we used receptor antagonists to determine whether the antihyperalgesic effect of 15-deoxyΔ-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) was PPARγ- or opioid receptor-dependent. Three hours after carrageenan, muscle hyperalgesia was quantified with the Randall-Selitto test. 15d-PGJ2 prevented carrageenan-induced muscle hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner. The antihyperalgesic effect of 15d-PGJ2 was dose-dependently inhibited by either the PPARγ antagonist, 2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide, or by the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. We conclude that 15d-PGJ2 targets PPARγ and opioid receptors to prevent muscle hyperalgesia. We suggest that local PPARγ receptors are important pharmacological targets for inflammatory muscle pain.