Mastoid osteomas of the temporal bone are rare, benign, and usually asymptomatic tumors. However, depending on their size and extension, mastoid osteomas may cause facial palsy, a sensation of ear fullness, pressure-related pain, hearing loss, recurrent external ear infections, and chronic discharge. The etiology of mastoid osteomas is still unknown, but congenital, infectious, and traumatic factors have been proposed. Surgical treatment may be performed with minimal postoperative morbidity. In this article, the authors report a case of a 48-year-old woman seeking orthodontic treatment with an unusual retroauricular protruding mass, including the diagnostic process and differential diagnosis. This case supports the essential role of cone-beam computed tomography to analyze and identify the lesion as a mastoid osteoma.