We evaluated pain status change and associations with subsequent opioid/marijuana use among 1208 adult survivors of childhood cancer. Pain status and opioid/marijuana were self-reported at baseline and follow-up evaluation (mean interval = 4.2 years). Over time, 18.7% of survivors endorsed persistent/increasing significant pain; 4.8% and 9.0% reported having used opioids and marijuana at follow-up. Persistent/increased (vs none/decreased) pain, persistent/increased (vs none/decreased) anxiety, and lack of health insurance increased odds of subsequent opioid use by 7.69-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.71 to 15.95), 2.55-fold (95% CI = 1.04 to 6.24), and 2.50-fold (95% CI = 1.07 to 5.82), respectively. Persistent/increased (vs none/decreased) depression increased odds of subsequent marijuana use by 2.64-fold (95% CI = 1.10 to 6.33).