Neuropathic pain is defined as pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory system. Neuropathic pain represents a broad category of pain conditions, common complications of peripheral neuropathies, which are characterized by a combination of positive symptoms, including paresthesia and/or dysesthesia and sensory deficits in the painful area. In the present paper, we aimed to assess neuropathic pain frequency and clinical characteristics of peripheral neuropathies due to different aetiologies according to grading system criteria of the International Association for the Study of Pain for a definitive diagnosis of neuropathic pain. Epidemiological studies applying these criteria have been conducted in patients with diabetes, brachial plexus injury, and other traumatic nerve injuries. Neuropathic pain was diagnosed in 37-42% of patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, 56% of patients with brachial plexus injury, and 22% of patients with intercostobrachial neuropathy. The most frequent neuropathic pain type was ongoing pain (described as burning or pressing), followed by paroxysmal pain (electric shock-like sensations) and allodynia (pain evoked by brushing and pressure). By providing information on the frequency, clinical signs, and variables associated with neuropathic pain due to different aetiologies, these studies contribute to improving the clinical management of this condition.