Small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is a prevalent neurologic syndrome. Testing methods have emerged in recent years to better diagnose it, including autonomic tests and skin punch biopsy. SFN can present in a non-length-dependent fashion and can be mistaken for syndromes such as fibromyalgia and complex regional pain syndrome. SFN is caused by a variety of metabolic, infectious, genetic, and inflammatory diseases. Recently treatments have emerged for TTR amyloid neuropathy and Fabry disease, and novel biomarkers have been found both in genetic and inflammatory SFN syndromes. Ongoing trials attempt to establish the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in inflammatory SFN syndromes.