Both childhood abuse and chronic pain are common in people with substance use disorders (SUDs). Studies have found that exposure to childhood abuse is associated with chronic pain in adulthood; however, few studies have examined this association in people with SUDs. This study aimed to characterize the association between childhood abuse and chronic pain presence and severity in adults with SUDs. Data were obtained from 672 treatment-seeking participants with SUDs on an inpatient detoxification unit. Regression models evaluated whether childhood physical or sexual abuse was associated with the likelihood of chronic pain and severity of several pain-related characteristics: pain catastrophizing, pain severity, and pain interference. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of chronic pain in adulthood. In the adjusted analyses, childhood physical abuse was associated with worse pain severity, whereas childhood sexual abuse was associated with greater pain catastrophizing and worse pain interference. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were associated with a greater likelihood of chronic pain in adults with SUDs. Among those with chronic pain, exposure to childhood abuse was associated with a more severe symptom profile, characterized by greater pain severity, more catastrophic interpretations of pain, and more pain-related interference with daily life. People with SUDs and a history of childhood abuse may benefit from screening for pain and interventions to reduce pain catastrophizing. These findings highlight the importance of longitudinal research to understand mechanisms linking childhood abuse exposure to later pain and substance misuse.