Treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) remains a challenge. In the absence of clear predictors of response, clinical decision-making involves trial and error. While many classes of pharmacological agent are used and have shown efficacy, one of the most commonly used first-line treatments is pregabalin. However, in the 60% of PNP cases in which the pain is localized, a local treatment may be more suitable. This article will summarize the evidence for the relative effectiveness and tolerability of the capsaicin 179 mg patch and pregabalin in the treatment of PNP and highlight the expert opinion of the authors based on their own clinical experiences.