Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a cardiovascular disease with high mortality and disability worldwide. The main pathological manifestation of CHD is myocardial injury due to ischaemia-reperfusion, resulting in the death of cardiomyocytes (apoptosis and necrosis) and the occurrence of cardiac failure. Morphine is a nonselective opioid receptor agonist that has been commonly used for analgesia and to treat ischaemic heart disease. The present review focused on morphine-induced protection in an animal model of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion and chronic heart failure and the effects of morphine on ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who underwent pre-primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pre-PPCI) or PPCI. The signalling pathways involved are also briefly described.