A randomized controlled trial compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and diabetes education (ED) as an adjunctive treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP). We examined change from baseline to 12- and 36-week follow-up in overall pain intensity (NRS), neuropathic pain intensity/quality, pain interference, and mental health functioning, among others. Although CBT participants demonstrated improvement in pain intensity NRS, there were no between-condition differences at either follow-up. CBT reduced neuropathic pain intensity at 12-weeks more than ED. At 36-weeks, CBT was superior to ED for improving pain interference and mental health functioning. Results provide evidence of benefit of CBT for DPNP.: NCT00830011.