Pain is the most frequent cause triggering patients to visit a physician. The worldwide incidence of chronic pain is in the range of 20% of adults, and chronic pain conditions are frequently associated with several comorbidities and a drastic decrease in patients' quality of life. Although several approved analgesics are available, such therapy is often not satisfying due to insufficient efficacy and/or severe side effects. Therefore, novel strategies for the development of safe and highly efficacious pain killers are urgently needed. To reach this goal, it is necessary to clarify the causes and signal transduction cascades underlying the onset and progression of the different types of chronic pain. The papers in this Special Issue cover a wide variety of mechanisms involved in different pain types such as inflammatory, neuropathic or cancer pain. Therefore, the results summarized here might contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms in chronic pain and thereby to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for pain patients.