Neuropathic pain is an abnormally increased sensitivity to pain, especially from mechanical or thermal stimuli. To date, the current pharmacological treatments for neuropathic pain are still unsatisfactory. The gut microbiota reportedly plays important roles in inducing neuropathic pain, so probiotics have also been used to treat it. However, the underlying questions around the interactions in and stability of the gut microbiota in a spared nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain model and the key microbes (i.e., the microbes that play critical roles) involved have not been answered. We collected 66 fecal samples over 2 weeks (three mice and 11 time points in spared nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain and Sham groups). The 16S rRNA gene was polymerase chain reaction amplified, sequenced on a MiSeq platform, and analyzed using a MOTHUR- UPARSE pipeline.