I am a
Home I AM A Search Login

Papers of the Week

2020 Oct 02


[Anesthesiological implications of minimally invasive valve interventions : Transcatheter aortic valve implantation, clip reconstruction on the mitral and tricuspid valve].


Catheter-guided interventional implantation of cardiac valves is one of the main developments in cardiology over the past 15 years. It is characterized by a close interdisciplinary cooperation in the heart team (H-team), which consists of cardiac anesthesiologists, cardiologists and heart surgeons. This co-responsibility for anesthesia, which is demanded by the legislator (Federal Joint Committee, G‑BA, July 2015), includes not only qualified training for the cardiac anesthesiologist, including transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) but also several years of experience in cardiac anesthesia and correlates with the recommendations of the German Society for Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine. In accompaniment with the demographic development, the number of heart valve diseases increases with age. More than 50% of all heart operations are performed on patients over the age of 70 years and nearly 20% on patients over the age of 80 years. Minimally invasive procedures are outstanding opportunities for patients who were initially classified as inoperable. Therefore, anesthesiologists must have precise knowledge of the possible complications related to the procedure itself. Additionally, it challenges the anesthesiologist with unconventional situations in the care of older patients who are exposed to a higher risk. The aforementioned risks are organic functional restrictions, increasing number of comorbidities and more severe exposure due to malnutrition and frailty; however, monitoring methods are also being developed aiming for patient-specific anesthesia management and analgesia treatment. This article discusses the interventional procedures of heart valvular diseases as well as the hemodynamic changes associated with the procedures from the anesthesiologist's point of view. To present examples, we have selected transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and the interventional procedure of mitral and tricuspid valve insufficiency called MitraClip and TricaClip. A thorough examination of the procedural risk rate shows that despite minimizing the surgical intervention by miniaturizing the devices, the presence of an experienced cardiac anesthesiologist is obligatory.