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2020 Sep 20

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)

Epidemiology of hypertensive crisis in the Buea Regional Hospital, Cameroon.


Nkoke C, Noubiap J J, Dzudie A, M Jingi A, Njume D, Teuwafeu D, Aseneh J, Nkouonlack C, Menanga A, Kingue S
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2020 Sep 20.
PMID: 32951311.


Hypertensive crisis (HC) includes hypertensive urgency (HU) and hypertensive emergency (HE). There is scarcity of data on the epidemiology of patients presenting with HC in Cameroon. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of HU and HE. We conducted a cross-sectional study from June 2018 until June 2019. The criteria to define a hypertensive crisis were systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥180/110 mm Hg. We compared HU vs HE. Out of the 1536 patients admitted, 95(6.2%) had a HC. There were 49(51.6%) men and 56 (58.9%) had a HE. The mean age was 51.1 ± 14.9 years. A history of hypertension was found in 75.3% of the patients but only 24.2% were on treatment. 33.7% consumed alcohol and 24.2% had chronic kidney disease. Headache (34.7%), dyspnea (34.7%), and neurological deficit (23.2%) were the most common symptoms. Patients with HE had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures though the difference was not significant. The most frequent forms of HE were acute left ventricular failure with pulmonary edema (44.6%), intracerebral hemorrhage (21.4%), and cerebral infarction (16.1%). The most commonly prescribed medication was labetalol (44.2%). Mean length of hospital stay was 8.4 days. Patients with HE had a longer hospital stay (9.8 vs 6.3 days, P < .001). In-hospital case fatality was 6.3%. Hypertensive crisis accounted for 6.2% of admissions in the medical unit with HE being more common than HU. Acute left ventricular failure with pulmonary edema and stroke were the most frequent target organ lesions in HE.