We aimed to assess if subjects with diabetes exhibit higher prevalence of chronic back pain than age-sex-province of residence-matched non-diabetic controls. We also aimed to identify predictors for chronic neck pain (CNP) or chronic low back pain (CLBP) among subjects with diabetes. A case control study was conducted using data obtained from the Spanish National Health Survey 2017. Multivariable conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were constructed. A total of 2095 diabetes sufferers and 2095 non-diabetic matched controls were analyzed. The prevalence of CNP and CLBP was 27.3% and 34.8%, respectively, in diabetes sufferers and 22.1% and 29.0% in non-diabetes controls (both, < 0.001). After multivariable analysis, the ORs showed significantly higher adjusted risk of CNP (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.19-1.51) and CLBP (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09-1.31) in diabetes cases. Diabetes sufferers with CNP or CLBP showed higher use of pain medication and higher prevalence of migraine/frequent headache than controls. Female sex, worse self-rated health and use of pain medication were predictors for CNP and CLBP in subjects with diabetes. CNP and CLBP are significantly more prevalent in diabetes sufferers than in controls. Current results can help to design better preventive and educational strategies for these highly prevalent and burdensome pains among diabetic patients.