Spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to increased phosphorylation of p38 in spinal cord microglia. This is one of the main causes for the development of persistent pain. Recently, we reported our study on the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in spinal microglia, which has been considered the key molecule for the onset and maintenance of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury, using a rat model. We also reported that the RhoA/Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) pathway mediates p38 activation in spinal microglia in peripheral nerve injury. But the precise mechanisms of neuropathic pain induced by SCI are still unclear.