Carpal tunnel syndrome, a compressive neuropathy of the median nerve at the wrist and cubital tunnel syndrome, a compressive neuropathy of the ulnar nerve at the elbow, are the two most common peripheral nerve compression syndromes. Chronic compressive neuropathy of peripheral nerves causes pain, paraesthesia and paresis. Treatment strategies include conservative options, but only surgical decompression can resolve the mechanical entrapment of the nerve with proven good clinical results. However, revision rates for persistent or recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome is estimated at around 5% and for refractory cubital tunnel syndrome at around 19%. Common causes for failure include incomplete release of the entrapment and postoperative perineural scarring.