(1) Background: Oxaliplatin is among the most neurotoxic anticancer drugs. Little data are available on the long-term prevalence and consequences of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), even though the third largest population of cancer survivors is made up of survivors of colorectal cancer. (2) Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 French centers to assess the prevalence of CIPN, as well as its consequences (neuropathic pain, anxiety, depression, and quality of life) in cancer survivors during the 5 years after the end of adjuvant oxaliplatin chemotherapy. (3) Results: Out of 406 patients, the prevalence of CIPN was 31.3% (95% confidence interval: 26.8-36.0). Little improvement in CIPN was found over the 5 years, and 36.5% of patients with CIPN also had neuropathic pain. CIPN was associated with anxiety, depression, and deterioration of quality of life. None of the patients with CIPN were treated with duloxetine (recommendation from American Society of Clinical Oncology), and only 3.2%, 1.6%, and 1.6% were treated with pregabalin, gabapentin, and amitriptyline, respectively. (4) Conclusions: Five years after the end of chemotherapy, a quarter of patients suffered from CIPN. The present study showed marked psychological distress and uncovered a failure in management in these patients.