25OHD is a partial agonist of TRPV1 whereby 25OHD can weakly activate TRPV1 yet antagonize the stimulatory effects of the full TRPV1 agonists capsaicin and oleoyl dopamine. 25OHD binds to TRPV1 within the same vanilloid binding pocket as capsaicin. 25OHD inhibits the potentiating effects of PKC-mediated TRPV1 activity. 25OHD reduces T-cell activation and trigeminal neuron calcium signalling mediated by TRPV1 activity. These results provide evidence that TRPV1 is a novel receptor for the biological actions of vitamin D in addition to the well-documented effects of vitamin D upon the nuclear vitamin D receptor. Our results may have important implications for our current understanding of certain diseases where TRPV1 and vitamin D deficiency have been implicated, such as chronic pain and autoimmune diseases, such as Type 1 Diabetes.