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Papers: 18 Jul 2020 - 24 Jul 2020

Animal Studies

2020 Jul 14

Eur J Pharmacol

Characterisation of nociception and inflammation observed in a traumatic muscle injury model in rats.


Kudsi S Q, de David Antoniazzi C T, Camponogara C, da Silva Brum E, Brusco I, Peres D S, Moreira Fischer S P, Dalenogare D P, Stein C D S, Zaccaron R P, Silveira P C L, Noal Moresco R, Oliveira S M, Trevisan G
Eur J Pharmacol. 2020 Jul 14:173284.
PMID: 32679186.


Muscle pain is the most prevalent type of pain in the world, but treatment remains ineffective. Thus, it is relevant to develop trustable animal models to understand the involved pain mechanisms. Therefore, this study characterised the nociception and inflammation in a traumatic muscle injury model in rats. A single blunt trauma impact on the right gastrocnemius muscle of male Wistar rats (250-350 g) was used as model for muscle pain. Animals were divided into four groups (sham/no treatment; sham/diclofenac 1%; injury/no treatment; injury/diclofenac 1%) and the topical treatment with a cream containing 1% monosodium diclofenac (applied at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 46 h after muscle injury; 200 mg/muscle) was used as an anti-inflammatory control. Nociception (mechanical and cold allodynia, or nociceptive score) and locomotor activity were evaluated at 26 and 48 h after injury. Also, inflammatory and oxidative parameters were evaluated in gastrocnemius muscle and the creatine kinase (CK) activity and lactate/glicose levels in rat's serum and plasma, respectively. Muscle injury caused mechanical and cold allodynia, and increased nociceptive scores, without inducing locomotor impairment. This model also increased the inflammatory cells infiltration (seen by myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activities and histological procedure), nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and dichlorofluorescein fluorescence in muscle samples; and CK activity and lactate/glicose ratio. The treatment with 1% monosodium diclofenac reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, dichlorofluorescein fluorescence and lactate/glicose levels. Thus, we characterised the traumatic muscle injury as a reproducible model of muscle pain, which makes it possible to evaluate promising antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory therapies.