The micro (mi)RNAs expressed in the sciatic nerve of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were evaluated in terms of their therapeutic potential in patients with diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP). Relative miRNA expression in sciatic nerve with DNP was analyzed using next-generation sequencing and quantitative PCR. Potential downstream targets of miRNAs were predicted using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and the TargetScan database. In vitro experiments were performed using miR-133a-3p-transfected RSC96 Schwann cells. We performed micro-Western and Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses to verify the role of miR-133a-3p. In vivo, the association between miR-133a-3p with DNP was analyzed via AAV-miR-133a-3p intraneural (intra-epineural but extrafascicular) injection into the sciatic nerve of normal rats or injection of an miR-133a-3p antagomir into the sciatic nerve of diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. miR-133a-3p mimics transfected into RSC96 Schwann cells increased VEGFR-2, p38α MAPK, TRAF-6, and PIAS3 expression and reduced NFκB p50 and MKP3 expression. In normal rats, AAV-miR-133a-3p delivery via intraneural injection into the sciatic nerve induced mechanical allodynia and p-p38 MAPK activation. In DM rats, miR-133a-3p antagomir administration alleviated DNP and downregulated p-p38 phosphorylation. Overexpression of miR-133a-3p in the sciatic nerve induced such pain. We suggest that miR-133a-3p is a potential therapeutic target for DNP.