Troponin is a crucial biomarker for the diagnosis of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). It rises in response to myocardial injury from significant acute myocardial ischaemia caused by obstructive coronary artery disease ['classical' myocardial infarction (MI)]. However, raised levels have also been noted in conditions not recognized as classical ACS. This may include MI with non-obstructed coronary arteries such as takotsubo cardiomyopathy and other acute or chronic conditions such as pulmonary embolus or chronic kidney disease. This is commonly labelled as a 'falsely elevated' troponin although there is some myocardial strain to explain the rise, such as an increase in cardiac oxygen demand. True 'falsely elevated' troponin, characterized by a persistent elevation in the absence of cardiac injury does occur and thought to be secondary to an immunoglobulin-troponin complex (macrotroponin).