Pain is a growing public health issue worldwide, but there is limited population-based evidence in low- and middle-income country settings. Using nationwide Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) data in 2007 and 2014, this research sets out to investigate the associations between changes in pain status between two time points and its impact on functional health outcomes among middle-aged and older adults in Indonesia. Analyses focused on 7936 adults aged 50 years and older in 2014 who responded to both waves. Functional health was assessed using a composite score of functional limitations (range 20-100), representing difficulty in performing activities of daily living, and grip strength (kilograms). Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyse associations between pain measured in 2007 and 2014 and functional health in 2014. Severe pain in the latest wave of IFLS was associated with older age, female, lower education, having chronic conditions or depressive symptoms. Notably, those who reported 'low-medium' pain in 2007 and 'severe' pain in 2014 belonged to the most vulnerable group with worst functional health outcomes (4.96 points higher limitation scores and 1.17 kg weaker average grip strength). Findings have implications for public health policy in monitoring and management of pain including related co-morbidities as an increasingly critical component of population ageing.