Transgenic therapy for central neuralgia faces the problems of low expression and weak targeting and affects superficial but not deep neurons. In this study, we generated a lentivirus vector with human preproenkephalin gene (hPPE) expression driven by the transcriptional amplification strategy system (TAS) and established a primary bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BMSC) line stably expressing hPPE for transplantation into a rat model of neuropathic pain rat. The paw thermal withdrawal latency assay and paw mechanical withdrawal threshold assay showed that unlike control BMSCs and BMSCs with hPPE overexpression driven by the CMV or Synapsin 1 (SYN1) promoter, TAS-hPPE BMSCs had a robust and lasting analgesic effect. The TAS-hPPE BMSC-treated group exhibited higher expression of TAS-driven hPPE and a higher ratio of BMSCs in the midbrain, spinal cord and cortex then the CMV-hPPE BMSC- and SYN1-hPPE BMSC-treated groups. Moreover, we also observed that TAS-hPPE BMSCs displayed a greater tendency to differentiate into neurons and exhibit neuronal-like distribution than CMV-hPPE or SYN1-hPPE BMSCs. In conclusion, our study shows that the TAS improves BMSC transgenic therapy for neuropathic pain treatment.