Substance use disorders (SUDs) are frequently accompanied by affective symptoms that promote negative reinforcement mechanisms contributing to SUD maintenance or progression. Despite their widespread use as analgesics, chronic or excessive exposure to alcohol, opioids, and nicotine produces heightened nociceptive sensitivity, termed hyperalgesia. This review focuses on the contributions of neuropeptide (CRF, melanocortin, opioid peptide) and cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α, chemokine) systems in the development and maintenance of substance-induced hyperalgesia. Few effective therapies exist for either chronic pain or SUD, and the common interaction of these disease states likely complicates their effective treatment. Here we highlight promising new discoveries as well as identify gaps in research that could lead to more effective and even simultaneous treatment of SUDs and co-morbid hyperalgesia symptoms.