Previous studies have demonstrated that continuous substance P (SP) infusion into the rat striatum attenuated hind paw formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors and mechanical hypersensitivity via a neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor dependent mechanism. However, whether there is a role of striatal infusion of SP on chronic, neuropathic pain has yet to be demonstrated. The present study investigated the effect of continuous SP infusion into the rat striatum using a reverse microdialysis method is antinociceptive in a rat model of chronic, mononeuropathic pain. Two weeks after partial sciatic nerve injury, the ipsilateral hind paw demonstrated mechanical hypersensitivity. Infusion of SP (0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 µg/mL, 1 µL/min) for 120 min into the contralateral striatum dose-dependently relieved mechanical hypersensitivity. The antinociceptive effect of SP infusion was inhibited by co-infusion with the NK1 receptor antagonist CP96345 (10 µM). Neither ipsilateral continuous infusion nor acute microinjection of SP (10 ng) into the contralateral striatum was antinociceptive. A role of striatal muscarinic cholinergic neurons is suggested since co-infusion of SP with atropine (10 µM), but not the nicotinic receptor mecamylamine (10 µM), blocked antinociception. The current study suggests that activation of striatal muscarinic receptors through NK1 receptors could be a novel approach to managing chronic pain.