Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent form of chronic liver disease, and the mechanisms underpinning its pathogenesis have not been completely established. Transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A), a component of the Ca-activated chloride channel (CaCC), has recently been implicated in metabolic events. Herein, TMEM16A is shown to be responsible for CaCC activation in hepatocytes and is increased in liver tissues of mice and patients with NAFLD. Hepatocyte-specific ablation of TMEM16A in mice ameliorates high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatic glucose metabolic disorder, steatosis, insulin resistance, and inflammation. In contrast, hepatocyte-specific TMEM16A transgenic mice exhibit the opposite phenotype. Mechanistically, hepatocyte TMEM16A interacts with vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP3) to induce its degradation, suppressing the formation of the VAMP3/syntaxin 4 and VAMP3/synaptosome-associated protein 23 complexes. This leads to the impairment of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) translocation and glucose uptake. Notably, VAMP3 overexpression restrains the functions of hepatocyte TMEM16A in blocking GLUT2 translocation and promoting lipid deposition, insulin resistance, and inflammation. In contrast, VAMP3 knockdown reverses the beneficial effects of TMEM16A downregulation. This study demonstrates a role for TMEM16A in NAFLD and suggests that inhibition of hepatic TMEM16A or disruption of TMEM16A/VAMP3 interaction may provide a new potential therapeutic strategy for NAFLD.