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2020 Apr 11

Med Hypotheses


Associations between migraine, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and activity of diamine oxidase.


Griauzdaitė K, Maselis K, Žvirblienė A, Vaitkus A, Jančiauskas D, Banaitytė-Baleišienė I, Kupčinskas L, Rastenytė D
Med Hypotheses. 2020 Apr 11; 142:109738.
PMID: 32416409.


Recent reports reveal a close relationship between migraine and gastrointestinal disorders (GI), such as celiac disease (CD) and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). CD is a genetic autoimmune disorder, which affects the mucosa of the small intestine. Gluten, found in various grains, not only plays a major role in the pathophysiology of CD and NCGS, but also aggravates migraine attacks. Another common food component, which can induce migraine headaches, is histamine. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is an enzyme, which degrades histamine. Reduced activity of DAO means reduced histamine degradation, which can cause histamine build-up and lead to various symptoms, including headaches and migraine. In this paper we propose a hypothesis, that in pathogenesis of migraine, low serum DAO activity is related to CD and NCGS. We also conducted our own pilot study of 44 patients with severe migraine in efforts to evaluate the co-presence of decreased serum DAO activity and celiac disease/NCGS in patients. 44 consecutive migraine patients were divided into 2 groups: decreased DAO activity (group 1; n = 26) and normal DAO activity (group 2; n = 18). All patients were screened for celiac disease. The diagnosis of NCGS was made after exclusion of CD, food allergies and other GI disorders in the presence of gluten sensitivity symptoms. Furthermore, dietary recommendations were given to all participants and their effects were assessed 3 months after the initial evaluation via the MIDAS (Migraine Disability Assessment) questionnaire.