This review provides an assessment of post-inhalation cough with therapeutic aerosols. Factors that increase cough may be mitigated through design of the drug, formulation and device. The incidence of cough is typically less than 5% for drugs with a nominal dose less than 1 mg, including asthma and COPD therapeutics. Cough increases markedly as the dose approaches 100 mg. This is due to changes in the composition of epithelial lining fluid (e.g., increases in osmolality, proton concentration). Whether an individual exhibits cough depends on their degree of sensitization to mechanical and chemical stimuli. Hypersensitivity is increased when the drug, formulation or disease result in increases in lung inflammation. Cough related to changes in epithelial lining fluid composition can be limited by using insoluble neutral forms of drugs and excipients.