China is the second highest pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) burden country worldwide. However, retreatment of PTB has often developed resistance to at least one of the four first-line anti-TB drugs. The cure rate (approximately 50.0-73.3%) and management of retreatment of PTB in China needs to be improved. Qinbudan decoction has been widely used to treat PTB in China since the 1960s. Previously clinical studies have shown that the Qinbudan tablet (QBDT) promoted sputum-culture negative conversion and lesion absorption. However, powerful evidence from a randomized controlled clinical trial is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of QBDT as an adjunct therapy for retreatment of PTB.