CHILDREN with cancer and survivors of childhood cancer have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and this risk in the perioperative period must be understood. During diagnosis and treatment of pediatric cancer, multiple acute cardiovascular morbidities are possible, including anterior mediastinal mass, tamponade, hypertension, cardiomyopathy,and heart failure. Childhood cancer survivors reaching late childhood and adulthood experience substantially increased rates of cardiomyopathy, heart failure, valvular disease, pericardiac disease, ischemia, and arrhythmias. Despite considerable advances in the understanding and therapeutic options of pediatric malignancies, cardiac disease remains the most common treatment-related, noncancer cause of death in childhood cancer survivors. Increasingly, molecularly targeted agents, including small molecule inhibitors, are being incorporated into pediatric oncology. The acute and chronic risks associated with these newer therapeutic options in children are not yet well-described, which poses challenges for clinicians caring for these patients. In the present review, the unique risks factors, prevention strategies, and treatment of cardiovascular toxicities of the child with cancer and the childhood cancer survivor are examined, with an emphasis on the perioperative period.