Geum japonicum Tunb. var. chinense (GJ) is a traditional Chinese medicine usually used for the alleviation of dizziness and headache. Previous studies have reported that the GJ extracts could alleviate cerebral I/R injury by reducing apoptosis in vivo. To further elucidate the positive role and underlying mechanism of the GJ extracts in cerebral I/R injury, the current study investigated the effects of the GJ extracts on oxygen-glucose deprivation and re-oxygenation (OGD/R)-induced astrocytes injury in light of BDNF/PI3K/Akt/CREB signaling pathway with seropharmacological method. In the present study, the LC-MS profiling of the GJ extracts, obtain by reflux extraction, led to the identification of three possible active components were 5-desgalloylstachyurin, tellimagrandin Ⅱ (TG Ⅱ) and 3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzaldehyde (THBA). Drug-containing serum was collected from rats given different doses of the GJ extracts (0, 1.75 g/kg, 7 g/kg). Data indicated that the GJ extracts could increase the cell viability and decrease apoptosis and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in OGD/R-induced astrocytes. In addition, the detection of apoptosis-related factors showed that the GJ extracts could obviously increase the expression of Bcl-2 and reduce the expression of Bax, Caspase-3 and cleaved-Caspase-3. Furthermore, the GJ extracts markedly increased the expression of BDNF, TrkB, PI3K, p-Akt and p-CREB. All these effects of the GJ extracts could be significantly reversed by LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K. These data indicated that the GJ extracts could protect astrocytes against OGD/R-induced injury by inhibiting astrocytes reactivity and apoptosis, owing to the activation of the BDNF/PI3K/Akt/CREB pathway. The results support the application of the GJ extracts in the treatment of ischemic stroke and other ischemic encephalopathy.