I am a
Home I AM A Search Login

Papers of the Week

2020 Apr 30

J Leukoc Biol

Itch regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses in mice and humans.


Field NS, Moser EK, Oliver PM
J Leukoc Biol. 2020 Apr 30.
PMID: 32356405.


The E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch has long been appreciated to be a critical suppressor of inflammation, first identified as a regulator of Th2 differentiation and lung inflammation. Recent studies have revealed novel roles for this protein in mouse and human disease, and it is now clear that Itch also limits the function of other lymphocytes, innate immune cells, and nonhematopoietic cells to regulate immunity. In addition to Th2 cells, Itch also regulates Th17 and regulatory T cells. Itch regulates humoral immunity through direct roles in T follicular helper cells and T follicular regulatory cells, and B cells. Furthermore, Itch limits innate immune responses, such as macrophage cytokine production. Through these cell-intrinsic functions, Itch regulates the interplay between innate and adaptive immune cells, resulting in profound autoinflammation in Itch-deficient mice. Whereas Itch deficiency was previously thought to be an extremely rare occurrence humans, whole exome sequencing of patients with unexplained autoimmune disease has revealed at least two additional cases of Itch deficiency in the last year alone, each caused by distinct mutations within the Itch gene. The recent identification of these patients suggests that Itch mutations may be more common than previously thought, and demonstrates the need to understand how this protein regulates inflammation and autoimmune disease.