Pain, especially chronic pain, can cause multiple changes including sensory-discriminative, emotional-affective, and cognitive-behavior changes and thus greatly affects patients' physical and mental health and quality of life. Therefore, multi-dimensional regulation of paralgesia, cognitive impairment, and negative emotion in patients with chronic pain has become a hot spot in recent studies. The brain regions in the limbic system are involved in the formation and expression of "pain sensation-emotion-cognition". Existing evidence suggests that acupuncture has a multi-dimensional comprehensive regulatory effect on chronic pain, and the brain regions in the limbic system also mediate the analgesic effect of acupuncture. However, further studies are still needed to explore the role and mechanism of action of these brain regions in the multi-dimensional regulation of chronic pain by acupuncture. This article reviews the research advances in the neural mechanism of the limbic system in chronic pain and the role of the limbic system in mediating acupuncture analgesia and mainly elaborates on the mechanism of action of the brain regions in the limbic system in the multi-dimensional regulation of chronic pain.