Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common and relapsing skin disease that is characterized by skin barrier dysfunction, inflammation, and chronic pruritus. While AD was previously thought to occur primarily in children, increasing evidence suggests that AD is more common in adults than previously assumed. Accumulating evidence from experimental, genetic, and clinical studies indicates that AD expression is a precondition for the later development of other atopic diseases, such as asthma, food allergies, and allergic rhinitis. Although the exact mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis remain unclear, it is evident that both cutaneous barrier dysfunction and immune dysregulation are critical etiologies of AD pathology. This review explores recent findings on AD and the possible underlying mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis, which is characterized by dysregulation of immunological and skin barrier integrity and function, supporting the idea that AD is a systemic disease. These findings provide further insights for therapeutic developments aiming to repair the skin barrier and decrease inflammation.