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Papers of the Week

2020 Mar/Apr

J Opioid Manag



Effect of physical manipulation on the oral pharmacokinetic profile of Xtampza ER (oxycodone DETERx formulation): A review of published studies.


Opioids can be an effective treatment option for appropriate patients with chronic pain for whom nonpharmacological or nonopioid treatment does not provide adequate pain relief. However, extended-release (ER) opioid formulations, because of their high drug content, are attractive options for nonmedical use and abuse. Xtampza ER (oxycodone DETERx) capsules, an ER abuse-deterrent formulation (ADF), contain microspheres that combine oxycodone with inactive ingredients to increase the difficulty of tampering with the ER mechanism. The aim of this article is to review five previously published studies highlighting the impact of physical manipula-tion (ie, crushing and chewing) on the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of orally administered Xtampza ER compared with immedi-ate-release (IR) oxycodone and/or reformulated OxyContin (the first approved oxycodone ER ADF). Across five studies, manipulated (crushed or chewed) Xtampza ER retained an ER PK profile similar to that of intact Xtampza ER, with respect to maximum plasma con-centration (Cmax) and time to Cmax. Additionally, bioequivalence was established between manipulated and intact Xtampza ER, based on Cmax and area under the concentration-time curve values in healthy volunteers and nondependent recreational opioid users. In contrast, crushed OxyContin failed to retain the ER PK profile of intact OxyContin and was bioequivalent to IR oxycodone, based on Cmax in healthy volunteers. The retention of ER PK properties when capsule contents are physically manipulated before oral administra-tion suggests Xtampza ER has lower potential to be manipulated for oral abuse when compared with IR oxycodone or OxyContin.