Osteoporosis (OP) is a chronic bone disease that affects individuals worldwide. Osteoporosis is primarily asymptomatic, and patients with OP suffer from pain, inconvenience, economic pressure and osteoporotic fracture (OPF). Osteoking, a Traditional Chinese Medicine compound that originates from the Yi ethnic group, has been used for a number of years to treat fractures. In our previous study, osteoking exhibited therapeutic effects on rats with OPF by promoting calcium deposition. Based on bioinformatics and network pharmacology analyses of a component‑target‑disease database, heat shock protein HSP 90‑β (HSP90‑β), also known as HSP90‑β, was identified to be a key target of osteoking in OP. High HSP90‑β expression levels were observed in osteoporotic rats and rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) following osteoking treatment. After 12 weeks of administration in vivo, there was increased bone mineral density (BMD) (P<0.05), increased bone alkaline phosphatase (P<0.05), and improved bone microstructure in the osteoking group compared with those of the negative control group. In vitro, increased calcium deposition in rBMSCs was observed after 4 weeks of osteoking treatment. These results suggest that the mechanisms of osteoking are closely associated with HSP90‑β and activate the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling pathway, primarily through BMP‑2. Osteoking treatment improves OP in rats by enhancing HSP90‑β expression.