Cocoa has been reported to have medicinal properties. It contains a wide range of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions, and also to have a positive effect on pain. Other components of cocoa might be able to positively influence pain perception through various mechanisms. Despite encouraging results from preclinical studies, there is a lack of evidence of antinociceptive effects of cocoa from clinical trials in humans. Further research is needed to better identify the active principles in cocoa, to understand the underlying mechanisms of action, and to establish efficacy in humans.